CoSV webinar series: IODP Expedition 398 Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field – one year after the drilling

CoSV webinar series: IODP Expedition 398 Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field – one year after the drilling

On February 1st, 2024, 16:00 UTC, CoSV hosted the webinar entitled “IODP Expedition 398 Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field – one year after the drilling”.

This webinar operated as a series of mini-talks presented by members of the IODP Exp. 398 science team: Dr. Steffen Kutterolf (GEOMAR, Kiel), Dr. Jonas Preine (University of Hamburg), Dr. Katharina Pank (GEOMAR, Kiel), Prof. Tim Druitt (Université Clermont Auvergne), Dr. Abigail Metcalfe (Université Clermont Auvergne).

To watch the webinar recording, click this link.

2024 Jan Iodp Webinar Pptx 1
Photograph credit: Thomas Ronge, IODP JRSO

Session abstracts :

Dr. Steffen Kutterolf (GEOMAR, Kiel): Introduction to IODP Expedition 398 Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field

IODP Expedition 398 ‘Hellenic-Arc-Volcanic-Field’ took place with the overarching goal to study the links and feedbacks between volcanism/magmatism, crustal tectonics and sea level using the volcanic record of the central Hellenic Volcanic Arc. Additional scientific targets are to unravel the iconic Minoan eruption, study volcanic hazards from submarine silicic eruptions, elaborate the basin development and climate record in the region, and explore microbial life in a active volcanic setting. During our expedition around the Christiana-Santorini-Kolumbo-Volcanic-Field (CSKVF) we experienced very challenging drilling conditions giving us time to drill twelve sites. In total we drilled 7345 meter in 28 holes, retrieved 780 cores with a total recovery of 3356 meters. We drilled thick basin fills of the crustal rift system hosting the CSKVF outside of Santorini caldera as well as four sites within the caldera which will unravel a most complete explosive eruption history of the CSKVF and enable us to achieve all proposed scientific objectives. In the webinar here we will show first results of some of these topics within the talks of:

Dr. Jonas Preine (University of Hamburg): Rising from the Ashes: Scientific Drilling Sheds New Light on the Spatio-Temporal Evolution of the Kameni Volcano inside the Santorini Caldera

Caldera-forming eruptions of silicic volcanic systems are highly destructive, with post-collapse volcanic activity typically seen as less hazardous. We reconstruct the volcanic historry of the Kameni Volcano inside Santorini Caldera, by integrating cored lithologies feom IODP Expedition 398 and seismic reflection data and reveal evidence of a major submarine explosive eruption in 726 CE, challenging previous eruption scenarios and emphasizing the heightened hazard potential of silicic calderas.

Dr. Katharina Pank (GEOMAR, Kiel): New insights into the timing and frequency of the explosive volcanism of Santorini using marine tephra from IODP Expedition 398 Hellenic Arc Volcanic Field.

Over 1000 discrete marine tephra layers were recovered during IODP Exp. 398. These volcanic layers were sampled and geochemically analysed for major and trace element compositions. We present preliminary findings of the tephra record covering the last 500 kyr and identified ~260 previously unknown volcanic deposits potentially sourced by Santorini Volcano. Some of these newly identified deposits form geochemical and temporal groups which have so far not been described for Santorini’s old volcanic history.

Prof. Tim Druitt (Université Clermont Auvergne): A giant shallow-marine pyroclastic flow eruption from ancestral Santorini discovered by deep drilling (IODP Expedition 398)

We report the discovery by IODP Expedition 398 of a giant rhyolitic pumice deposit emplaced 520 ± 10 ky ago at water depths of 200 to 1000 m during a high-intensity, shallow submarine eruption of ancestral Santorini Volcano. Pyroclastic currents discharged into the sea transformed into turbidity currents and slurries, forming a >89 ± 8 km3 volcaniclastic megaturbidite up to 150 m thick in the surrounding marine basins, while breaching of the sea surface by the eruption column laid down veneers of ignimbrite on three islands. The eruption is one of the largest recorded on the South Aegean Volcanic Arc.

Dr. Abigail Metcalfe (Université Clermont Auvergne): Linking Explosive Volcanism to Tectonic Events: An Example from the Christiana-Santorini-Kolumbo Volcanic Field (IODP Expedition 398)

Caldera cycles can be driven by processes both internal and external to the magmatic system. Drilling in the rift basins surrounding Santorini during IODP exp 398, reveals that deposits from caldera forming eruptions lie directly on seismically distinguished onlap surfaces which are interpreted as rift pulses. We interpret this relationship as caldera cycles at Santorini volcano being modulated by tectonic processes, in this case, periods of accelerated rifting.

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